Sorbitol, chemically it is a kind of glycerol, is a sugar alcohol that the human body metabolizes gradually. It is readily obtained by reduction of glucose by changing the aldehyde group into a hydroxyl group. It is naturally abundant and it was discovered by a French chemist in the berries of the mountain ash.It is nature, this compound gives better sweetness, in addition to providing sweetness, and it is excellent humectants in some cigarettes and texturizing agent.
What is Sorbitol
Its moisture-stabilizing action protects the food items from drying and maintains their initial freshness during storage. It provides bulk and sweetness with a clean, cool pleasant taste. It gives about 60 percent as sweet as sucrose with one-third fewer calories and versatile advantages; it is used in food item as sugar substitute to provide incomparable artificial sweetness. It has a smooth mouth feel with a sweet, cool and pleasant taste. It is non-cariogenic and may be useful to people with diabetes due to its less calorie content. It is also used in other products, such as pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. A keen interesting fact that a mixture of sorbitol and potassium nitrate has found success as an amateur solid rocket fuel.
Sorbitol is referred to as a nutritive sweetener because it provides dietary energy. It is often used in diet foods, mints, cough syrups, and sugar-free chewing gum. Sorbitol often is used in mouthwash and toothpaste. Some transparent gels can be made only with sorbitol, as it has a refractive index sufficiently high for transparent formulations enhances the usage of this compound as “sugar free” chewing gum. It can be used as a non-stimulant laxative via an oral suspension or enema.
Ingesting large amounts of sorbitol can lead to abdominal pain, flatulence, and mild to severe diarrhea. Sorbitol ingestion of 20 grams per day as sugar-free gum has led to severe diarrhea leading to unintended weight loss.
The Uses of Sorbitol
As is the case with other sugar alcohols, foods containing sorbitol can cause gastrointestinal distress. Sorbitol can be used as a laxative when taken orally or as an enema. Sorbitol works as alaxative by drawing water into the large intestine, stimulating bowel movements.
As is the case with other sugar alcohols, foods containing sorbitol can cause gastrointestinal distress. Sorbitol can be used as a laxative when taken orally or as an enema. Sorbitol works as a laxative by drawing water into the large intestine, stimulating bowel movements. Sorbitol has been determined safe for use by the elderly, although it is not recommended without the advice of a doctor. Sorbitol is found in some dried fruits and may contribute to the laxative effects of prunes. Sorbitol was first discovered in the fresh juice of mountain ash (Sorbus aucuparia) berries in 1872. It is also found in the fruits of apples, plums, pears, cherries, dates, peaches and apricots.
Health Care, Food, and Cosmetic
Sorbitol often is used in modern cosmetics as a humectant and thickener. It is also used in mouthwash and toothpaste. Some transparent gels can be made only with sorbitol, because of its high refractive index. Sorbitol is used as a cryoprotectant additive (mixed with sucrose and sodium polyphosphates) in the manufacture of surimi, a processed fish paste. It is also used as a humectant in some cigarettes. Beyond its use as a sugar substitute in reduced-sugar foods, Sorbitol is also used as a humectant in cookies and low-moisture foods like peanut butter and fruit preserves. In baking, it is also valuable because it acts as a plasticizer, and slows down the staling process.
Sorbitol is a sugar substitute, and when used in food it has the INS number and E number 420. Sorbitol is about 60% as sweet as sucrose (table sugar). Sorbitol is referred to as a nutritive sweetener because it provides dietary energy: 2.6 kilocalories (11 kilojoules) per gram versus the average 4 kilocalories (17 kilojoules) for carbohydrates. It is often used in diet foods (including diet drinks and ice cream), mints, cough syrups, and sugar-free chewing gum. Most bacteria are unable to use sorbitol for energy, but it can be slowly fermented in the mouth by streptococcus mutans, a species of bacteria that cause tooth decay unlike many other sugar alcohols such as isomalt and xylitol, which are considered to be non-acidogenic. It also occurs naturally in many stone fruits and berries from trees of the genus Sorbus.
A mixture of sorbitol and potassium nitrate has found some success as an amateur solid rocket fuel. Sorbitol is identified as a potential key chemical intermediate for production of fuels from biomass resources. Carbohydrate fractions in biomass such as cellulose undergo sequential hydrolysis and hydrogenation in the presence of metal catalysts to produce sorbitol. Complete reduction of sorbitol opens the way to alkanes, such as hexane, which can be used as a biofuel. Hydrogen required for this reaction can be produced by aqueous phase catalytic reforming of sorbitol. Sorbitol based polyols are used in the production of polyurethane foam for the construction industry. It is also added after electroporation of yeasts in transformation protocols, allowing the cells to recover by raising the osmolarity of the medium.